"New national standard" of plastic playground is asking for experts' opinions
Yesterday, some experts from the national standards committee who participated in the drafting of the "sports equipment and venues for primary and secondary schools" issued in 2005 revealed that the "new national standard" for plastic playground has been drafted out and experts are being consulted. The specific time of publication has not yet been determined. The expert pointed out that the national standard discussion draft not only considered to increase the detection of toxic and harmful substances, but also regulated the sports performance and safety of the site, which was more comprehensive than the local standard.
5 provinces have established local standards for plastic playground; 4 provinces have increased the detection of toxic and odorous substances; Shanghai playground has reached the "bite" standard
Yesterday, some experts from the National Standards Committee (GB / t19851-2005), which was once involved in the drafting of sports equipment and venues for primary and secondary schools in 2005, revealed that recently, the Ministry of education, the National Standards Committee and other departments are revising the "national standards" of the playground. At present, the discussion draft of the new GB has been drawn up, and experts are being consulted. The specific time of promulgation has not yet been determined.
Since the end of 2015, parents of schools in Jiangsu, Shenzhen, Beijing, Zhejiang, Shanghai and other places have said that children suffer from dizziness, nosebleed and other symptoms due to the "toxic" campus plastic playground. Therefore, the construction standard of plastic runway has become one of the focuses.
In June this year, the Ministry of Education said it would work with the Ministry of environmental protection, the Ministry of housing and urban rural development, the General Administration of sports and the National Standards Commission to study the formulation of relevant standards.
In fact, local standards have emerged in different forms. Beijing News reporters recently found that up to now, there are five provinces in Hunan, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, respectively, in the form of Industry Association guidance or government documents, to determine the construction standards of plastic playground. In addition to Hunan, other four places have added the detection of some chemical substances, while Hunan has added the detection of physical properties based on the existing national standards.
The reporter of Beijing News understands that the new national standard is similar to the "Shanghai standard". In addition to using the existing national standard items and limits, the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, short chain chlorinated paraffin and other substances has been added, and the limits have been set; at the same time, the detection of release rate of harmful substances and the requirements of gas taste rating have been added.
The aforementioned experts pointed out that some indicators in the "national standard" discussion draft are still under discussion, and the final draft may change. In addition, the national standard discussion draft not only considers to increase the detection of toxic and harmful substances, but also regulates the sports performance and safety of the site, which is more comprehensive than the local standard.
Official formulation of "Zhejiang standard" by different subjects
The reporters of Beijing News found that the "local standards" had been issued in the form of industry self-discipline and government regulation.
Jiangsu standard is in the form of industry guidance, reflecting the industry self-discipline. "At the end of 2014, the Ministry of housing and urban rural development cancelled the qualification examination and approval of sports venues and facilities projects," said Shen Zujian, vice president of Jiangsu Sports Construction Industry Association, which means that in the future, business problems need to be solved through industry self-discipline.
Jiangsu Sports Construction Industry Association was established later, and has been running for one and a half years. "60% to 70% of the enterprises in the association were qualified for sports facilities engineering". He said that the association requires all member units to sign the letter of responsibility and letter of commitment, and must implement the guidance and relevant association specifications. If they fail to do so, the association will disqualify them and investigate the relevant responsibilities.
At the same time, there is a quality supervision group, which conducts spot check regularly and irregularly, and disposes of problems found. However, Shen stressed that the guidance is self-discipline in the industry and is not mandatory for non Association members.
Although not all enterprises join the association, the membership of the association will be included in the requirements when bidding for existing projects. "The development is quite good," said Shen Zujian, but it still needs the strong cooperation of the government's administrative leading departments. "I hope that the administrative departments can cooperate with the introduction of local laws and regulations to require enterprises."
The new standard for the playground in Hunan was issued by Hunan Sports Facilities Construction Association in November last year, which also belongs to the self-discipline standard of the industry. According to Li Hongwu, President of Hunan Sports Facilities Construction Association, the standard mainly uses the testing requirements of existing national standards.
The new standard of Zhejiang Province is different. Although the content is similar to the guidance of Jiangsu Province, it is jointly studied by four departments including Zhejiang Provincial Department of education, Zhejiang Provincial Department of environmental protection, Zhejiang Provincial Department of housing and urban rural development, Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of quality and technical supervision, and it is issued after expert argumentation.
This is also the only provincial new standard jointly issued by the relevant provincial departments, which is more mandatory than the industry association's guidance. Zhejiang provincial standard also stipulates that projects that fail to pass the inspection shall not be subject to completion acceptance.
In addition, although the "new standard" of Shanghai's plastic track is researched and formulated by Shanghai Chemical Building Materials Industry Association, Shanghai Education Department, housing construction department, environmental protection department and other departments require that the construction and management of plastic field in basic education schools in Shanghai should refer to this standard.
4 provinces "new standard" increase toxic and odorous substance detection
After the frequent occurrence of "toxic runway" events, whether the original national standards meet the requirements has become the focus of attention.
Up to now, when the domestic plastic runway is submitted for inspection, the standards set out in GB / t14833-2011 synthetic material runway surface are still used, among which the inspection and detection items include the sum of benzene, toluene and xylene, heavy metals (including soluble lead, soluble cadmium, soluble cadmium, soluble mercury), and free toluene diisocyanate (TDI).
In the provinces where local standards have been formulated, the reporter of Beijing News found that in addition to Hunan, the new standards of four other places, there are detection of toxic and odorous substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and short chain chlorinated paraffin.
Among them, the standards of Shanghai and Shenzhen are relatively strict, and the local standards of Shanghai are even rated as the "strictest" industry standards for the limit of harmful substances in history.
Shenzhen's local plastic playground construction specification is the first officially recognized "landmark", which was commissioned by Shenzhen Municipal Bureau of education to complete by Shenzhen Academy of Building Sciences. Zhao Wenhai, vice president of Guangdong sports facilities manufacturers association and chairman of Changhe group, once participated in the formulation of Shenzhen "landmark". He said that in Shenzhen's standards, while continuing the detection of finished products, the limit of harmful substances for raw materials was increased, "control should be carried out from the source".
Zhao Wenhai said that on the basis of the national standard, the testing items in Shenzhen have increased the testing contents of Moca, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, free toluene cyanate ester, short chain chlorinated paraffin and other substances, all of which are confirmed to be harmful to human body. For example, short chain chlorinated paraffins, which can play a role of plasticizing and flame retardant, may have an impact on the immune system and reproductive system of the human body; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogens.
Compared with the "toxic milk" incident, "the melamine in the toxic milk in that year was about equal to the short chain chlorinated paraffin and other substances in the toxic playground incident". Zhao Wenhai believed that one of the root causes of the toxic playground was that the manufacturers used the toxic and harmful substances in violation of regulations in order to reduce the cost, so in the new standard, relevant tests need to be added.
Shenzhen also put forward the requirements of on-site smell detection, outdoor normal temperature detection and high-temperature detection with special equipment, "the scores are relatively fine," Zhao said.
The new test substance is toxic to human body, why use it? In this regard, the person in charge of an enterprise that once contracted to lay plastic playground in several primary and secondary schools in Beijing said that the toxicity of raw materials can not be simply judged as "toxic" of finished products.
"A lot of chemical materials are toxic and harmful substances," he said, but in the process of production, it is necessary to fully complete the chemical reaction through the process so as to reduce the toxicity to the extent that there is no harm to human body, so it needs to be standardized.
The establishment of the new standard is also related to the current construction process of the plastic playground. At present, it only monitors the construction process and steps, and pays less attention to the material ratio and environmental protection performance. "It's all about physical performance, but little attention to chemical composition and raw materials," Zhao said.
Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province have also added the detection of organic matter projects. However, compared with Shanghai and Shenzhen, Jiangsu and Zhejiang's new standards are relatively "moderate" in terms of the limit value of toxic and harmful substances.
Shen Zujian said that the current national standards are very strict, but with the development of the times and the progress of people's cognition, new testing projects will be considered.
Shanghai is the most strict and even up to the standard of "biting"
After Shenzhen, Zhao Wenhai also participated in the formulation of local standards in Shanghai.
Compared with other four places, Shanghai's "limit of harmful substances in plastic surface layer of school sports ground" released in late July not only increased the detection of some toxic and harmful substances, but also improved the indicators of benzene and free toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in the existing national standard.
According to the Beijing News, for example, the national standard of benzene limit is 0.05g/kg, and the Shanghai standard is marked "not detected". Considering that the minimum detection dose of benzene is 0.02g/kg, "not detected" means not higher than this value.
"Referring to some foreign standards", Zhao Wenhai introduced that at present, the standards of Shanghai plastic playground also include the material testing requirements of exported toys and the corresponding technical indicators of the European Union, which are relatively strict. Children can not only contact directly, but also bite safely. "But it will increase the cost of plastic playground by 30% to 40%."
At the same time, new indicators such as "release rate of harmful substances" are proposed in the new Shanghai standard. Zhao explained that Shanghai's standards, on the one hand, form a whole chain of testing process for plastic playground from raw materials to finished products, on the other hand, include all possible toxic substances.
In addition, in the detection of toxic and harmful organics, Shanghai has referred to the standard of interior decoration, including the part of gb18583-2008 on the limit of harmful substances in adhesives, and the content of "chemical pollutants" in the second part of GB / t18204.2-2014 inspection methods for public places.
Zhao joked that according to Shanghai's standards, the air quality in some houses may not meet the requirements.
At present, the local standard of plastic raceway in Shanghai has been formally implemented. The management of plastic field construction in Shanghai basic education school is required to refer to the standard.
Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and other relevant departments have made it clear that the bidding and construction acceptance of relevant projects will be managed in the whole process, and violations will be recovered.
Is the more stringent the limit of toxic substances, the better?
Experts: the formulation of national standards needs to consider whether most enterprises can meet the standards
In terms of the limit value of toxic and harmful substances, the reporter of Beijing News found that the detection dose in Shanghai and Shenzhen was more strict, while that in Jiangsu and Zhejiang basically followed the national standard.
Behind the different limit values are the different understandings of experts and enterprises in different regions to the standard formulation. Shen Zujian believes that the standard is not the more strict the better, but to pay attention to the practical operation, "we should pay attention to what the product itself has, meet the domestic processing capacity, and consider whether most enterprises can achieve this level.".
His other role is as an expert of the national standards committee, who has participated in the national standards research conducted by the relevant departments of the Ministry of education and the National Standards Committee. "The national standard should be considered more comprehensively", Shen Zujian believes that the national standard considers eligibility, rather than quality, "local standards can reflect quality".
Shen Zujian said that the national standard can be reflected as a qualified line. Regions with conditions can set higher environmental protection standards, and those without conditions can implement universal standards.
Zhou Jinpeng, chairman of Hangzhou Shunfan Chemical Engineering Co., Ltd., who once participated in the laying of plastic venues for the Olympic Games, said that the existing national standard was already very strict, "the problem is that someone tried hard to add plasticizers to reduce the cost.". He said that the normal cost of 200 to 300 yuan per square meter of plastic playground can be reduced to about 100 yuan. "The task of the national standard is to make it mandatory for enterprises to comply with it." He believes that if we blindly pursue strict standards and reduce the limit, it may also cause harm to the industry.
Beijing plastic playground standard is being formulated
The relevant person in charge of Beijing Municipal Education Commission once disclosed that the construction and monitoring standards of plastic playground and runway in Beijing primary and secondary schools are currently in the process of formulation. Before the introduction of the new standard, the construction of all playground under construction or to be built in each school will be suspended. If the school playground has been eradicated, the use of earth playground and other ways can be considered for transition.
It is understood that the Beijing municipal government issued a document in June requiring the Municipal Education Commission, quality supervision, environmental protection, housing and construction departments to formulate the construction standards of plastic playground for primary and secondary schools and kindergartens in the city as soon as possible.
A person familiar with the matter said that Beijing plastic playground standard will fully focus on the characteristics of the school, considering that the playground in the school should have multiple functions such as sports, activities and games. In terms of environmental protection, the requirements for volatiles will be stricter than those for track and field, and relevant experiments by toxicologists are needed.
At the same time, considering some characteristics of campus sports, such as the possible impact of sports emergency stop on the body, it will make certain requirements on the flexibility and ductility of the plastic playground.
The person in charge of an enterprise that once contracted for the laying of plastic playground in several primary and secondary schools in Beijing is looking forward to the introduction of the new standard. "Now many projects have been shut down," he said. For enterprises, self-discipline in the industry should be considered after the standard is introduced.
This is also a problem that related enterprises need to face after the cancellation of the qualification examination and approval of sports venues and facilities projects. "After the simplification of administration and decentralization of power, the self-discipline of the association industry is also one of the trends advocated by the government." according to the above person in charge, at present, relevant enterprises in Beijing are preparing to establish the Beijing sports facilities construction and operation association. After the examination and approval of relevant departments, the self-discipline of the industry will be put on the agenda.
National development history of "plastic playground"
According to media reports, polyurethane plastic track was first used in Beijing Workers' Stadium in September 1979. By 1998, there were more than 30 raw material manufacturers of plastic runway in China.
Industry insiders said that around 2003, plastic playground began to be used in primary and secondary schools across the country. Over the next ten years, China's plastic venues have been further expanded, from sports venues to large, middle and primary schools, nurseries, kindergartens, fitness venues for the elderly and other venues.
"China's playground concept cannot be simply compared with other countries." Some people in the education department described the "prosperity" of the plastic playground as not only for the sake of the "face" of the school, but also for the rigid demand in a certain sense. In Chinese schools, due to the limited space for students' activities, the function of the playground is very "intensive", which integrates games, competitions, physical exercises, etc. the educational task carried by the playground is far greater than that of foreign countries, and the use intensity is also very large. The plastic playground is more suitable in material.
In addition, plastic playground for the climate, natural environment "fit" degree is also higher than soil playground. However, this kind of plastic playground has a service life of 8 to 10 years, so it needs to be replaced or repaired.
Caiwriter / reporter of Beijing News Huang yingsha Lu
Editor: AI Zheng