Xinhua news agency asked five questions about "poison track"
Editor's note: from Xinjiang to the northeast, from Inner Mongolia to Shenzhen, in the past two years, campus "poison track" events emerge in endlessly, students' parents are furious The centralized outbreak of the campus "poison track" event has become a national event, and its root causes are complex, lasting for a long time, involving a wide range of regions, and bringing harm is beyond imagination.
It is supposed to be a place to strengthen students' physique, but it has become a "weapon" to damage children's health. Xinhua News Agency reporters found that the reason why "toxic playground" and "toxic runway" can't be found out is the prevalence of inferior products, low price bid winning, illegal construction, lack of standards, lax acceptance, and the supervision of relevant links is nothing.
One question: why is the venue "complete with five poisons"? ]
From May 20 this year, the campus "poison track" incident broke out in Chengdu, Beijing, Shenyang and other places. In 2015, according to incomplete statistics, the "poison track" spread to at least six provinces and cities, including Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Henan, and up to 15 specific cities.
According to the summary of the risk monitoring and analysis report on volatile hazardous substances in polyurethane plastic site submitted by Shenzhen Institute of measurement and quality inspection and Guangdong Institute of standardization in December 2015, the proportion of polyurethane plastic site with unreasonable risk in the sampling survey conducted in the province is as high as 25%.
What's the poison in "toxic runway" and "toxic playground"? Zhao Wenhai, vice president of Guangdong sports facilities manufacturers association and chairman of Changhe group, told Xinhua that poor polyurethane plastic products are "all kinds of poisons".
In recent years, with the rapid development of school sports in China, the government, schools and parents pay more and more attention to children's health, and the demand for playground and runway is increasing. The market cake is big, and many unqualified enterprises immediately "kill in" - among polyurethane manufacturers, there are more than a dozen certified by IAAF in China, and there are also more than a dozen certified by CAA, but there are actually thousands of them, and nearly 3000 of them were added last year.
As mentioned in the risk monitoring and analysis report of volatile hazardous substances in polyurethane plastic field, these small workshops without qualification, technology, production management and quality assurance occupy 50% or more of the market in one year. The quality of these products is difficult to guarantee.
Plastic runway can be roughly divided into polyurethane cast-in-place type and prefabricated rubber coil. The prefabricated type mainly uses rubber and other raw materials, which is a kind of environmental protection product, but because of its high cost, it is not popular in China; polyurethane is the traditional material with the largest market share at present, accounting for 95% of the current domestic market, and the runway and playground with problems are of this type.
According to the reporter's investigation, people in the industry don't agree on the origin of "toxic runway". This is because polyurethane runway needs more raw materials, and there are more production and laying links. The basic raw material is polyurethane two-component (a, b) glue. During construction, a and B glues are mixed in a certain proportion, and black particles are added. Solvents are also used in the laying process. Due to the use of two-component glue, black particles and solvents involving a variety of chemical materials, almost every part has the possibility of problems.
However, in many cases from last year to this year, a prominent manifestation of many students is nosebleed, cough and skin allergy. Zhao Wenhai said that this should be caused by free TDI (toluene diisocyanate).
According to Chen Chen, vice president and chemical doctor of Guangzhou Tongxin Sports Industry Group Co., Ltd., at present, polyurethane runway is generally TDI type, and its glue a component is the prepolymer formed by the reaction of polyether and TDI. If the reaction is not sufficient, there will be free TDI, which will cause harm to human body. TDI is listed as a high-level occupational hazard chemical by the state. It is a toxic carcinogen, and has irritation to eyes, respiratory tract and skin.
Chen Chen, who once stayed in the US, revealed that TDI is banned in the US. However, the U.S. plastic track industry has always criticized this regulation, because if the response is complete, there will be no residual TDI. In China, TDI Polyurethane is the "main force" of polyurethane runway.
Zhao Wenhai believes that in addition to free TDI, some plasticizers used in polyurethane glue, such as short chain chlorinated paraffin, will decompose and volatilize chlorides such as hydrogen chloride when exposed to sunlight, and the toxic organic solvents (toluene, xylene) used in the laying process, "generally these three kinds of things lead to the smell of choking on many problem runways".
But there are more than three kinds of toxic substances. Liu Haipeng, Secretary General of the facility and equipment sub Technical Committee of the National Technical Committee for sports standardization, pointed out last year that the possible hazards of plastic raceways come from a variety of substances, mainly chloride in polyurethane (PU) glue, free TDI, benzene compounds, sulfide in black particles, various compounds in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particles and heavy metals in glue. These not only harm people's health, but also pollute the environment.
Zhao Wenhai said that in addition to being able to smell, there are some harmful substances that have no smell and may not have been found, "because I don't know what kind of garbage materials are added by people who do it specifically.". He also mentioned that the crosslinker MOCA used in traditional polyurethane glue is carcinogenic. However, there is still controversy in the industry.
Recently, it has been reported that the polyurethane plastic track in 51 primary and secondary schools in Seoul, South Korea, has been stopped due to excessive lead, cadmium and other heavy metals. The lead content of most of the problem school runways exceeded the standard by 10 times, but some exceeded the standard by 30 times. Chen Chen believes that this may be due to the use of organometallic catalysts in polyurethane glue.
Second question: How did the poison track enter the school? ]
How do inferior products enter the school? This is often inseparable from the bidding process.
"The price of plastic runway is still lower than that ten years ago. How can it be reasonable? Now, 80, 90% are made of waste. " When it comes to these, Zhao Wenhai, vice president of Guangdong sports facilities manufacturers association and chairman of Changhe, is deeply moved.
However, the current school plastic site construction bidding link, often the standard is "low price.".
In order to improve the lagging situation of campus sports facilities, in recent years, it needs a lot of capital investment to strengthen the construction of campus playground. According to an education department official in a district of Chongqing, there are more than 120 primary and secondary schools and more than 40 schools with campus football characteristics at all levels. In addition to a dozen newly built schools with standard fields in recent years, the fields of other schools need to be reconstructed and expanded. Excluding the cost of land acquisition, the cost per square meter of a standard plastic playground equipped with stand and other auxiliary facilities is about 600 yuan. In recent years, the local government has invested tens of millions of yuan in the reconstruction and expansion of the school sports ground every year, which is under great financial pressure.
The less investment and the lower price of the bidding seriously affect the quality of the campus playground project.
When talking about polyurethane runway, many related people interviewed by the reporter mentioned that the current market price is too low.
According to the introduction, the price of plastic runway with good performance, safety and environmental protection should be more than 280 yuan / m2, but the actual bidding price is less than 150 yuan everywhere. According to the report on risk monitoring and analysis of volatile hazardous substances in polyurethane plastic field, even the "guidance price" issued by some governments is only 180 yuan / m2.
At the same time, in the bidding, the bid evaluation system obviously tends to large-scale construction enterprises, which makes the small and medium-sized enterprises specializing in sports facilities manufacturing and construction at a significant disadvantage. In reality, it is usually after large-scale enterprises win the bid that they subcontract to middlemen or manufacturers, forming layers of subcontracting. Many times of subcontracting, resulting in the original unreasonable project funds into the hands of the construction party is a big discount, and finally only through Jerry building or using inferior raw materials to ensure profits.
Chen Chen, vice president and chemical doctor of Guangzhou Tongxin Sports Industry Group Co., Ltd., said that the purchasing agency did not know enough about the cost and harmful substances of the plastic runway, lacked professional knowledge and in-depth consultation, did not have the qualification requirements for engineering companies and raw material manufacturers, and the market also lacked effective supervision, leading to vicious low-cost competition.
Zhao Wenhai said that many schools adopt the lowest price to win the bid, because this is the simplest, and the leaders are not responsible. "In order to find a job, the engineering company wins the bid first. As a result, it can't make any money, so it has to keep reducing the cost and adding all kinds of garbage materials.".
He explained that the most widely used polyurethane glue (high-quality) costs more than 10000 yuan a ton, but in order to reduce the cost someone will add stone powder, which costs only more than 100 yuan a ton. Stone powder is harmless, but if it is added too much, the hardness will be too high, and the plastic runway needs to be elastic, so plasticizer should be added. Among the plasticizer, SCCPs are the cheapest, but also the most odor and toxicity. In order to improve the strength, MOCA may be added. When laying, black particles should be added, which will be too thick for laying, so solvent should be added. In addition to benzene solvent, there are other organics in fact.
Liu Haipeng, secretary-general of the facilities and equipment sub Technical Committee of the national sports Standardization Technical Committee, also said last year that many small workshops often lack qualification and technology, quality assurance system, safety production management measures, and product inspection and testing means, so the manufacturing cost is very low.
This kind of low-end and defective product has an unparalleled price advantage. After all the bidding based on price, the enterprise products with a complete set of management system and certification system, R & D ability and detection means are facing the dilemma of being replaced.
A manufacturer of artificial turf said that due to market chaos, weak supervision and lax bidding control, this phenomenon of bad currency expelling good currency is very typical in related industries.
Three questions: construction or poisoning? ]
The low price brings the inferior products and the inferior construction.
Xinhua News Agency reporters repeatedly contacted a construction contractor who did not want to be named. He said that at present, the low-cost bidders have their advantages. At the same time, winning the bid depends on whether there is any relationship. Some of them have already made low profits in the hands of the actual construction parties through several layers of subcontracting, and only inferior raw materials can be used.
"In the past, the bidding required the qualification of professional contracting for stadium construction, which was cancelled at the end of 2014. Now the bidding will invite builders, and the large municipal enterprises of housing construction win the bid and subcontract to other companies. At present, the industry has fallen into a vicious circle, with lower prices, more and more subcontracts and worse quality. " Chen Chen, vice president and chemical doctor of Guangzhou Tongxin Sports Industry Group Co., Ltd.
In 2001, the Ministry of construction (now the Ministry of housing and urban rural development) formulated and issued three levels of contracting qualification for sports venues and facilities engineering, and the plastic venue engineering needs to be contracted and constructed by professional qualification enterprises. The rule was lifted in 2014. After winning the bid, the construction team is not necessarily qualified, and there are many defects in the construction process.
"There are about 30 (construction) teams that can install prefabricated structures in China," Chen said. There are 3000 polyurethane installation teams. In fact, due to the on-site deployment of raw materials, polyurethane runway requires higher qualification of construction team. So it's not normal. "
The bid winning price with low profit space and the construction team with mixed advantages and disadvantages cause the illegal addition in the construction process. Zhao Wenhai, vice president of Guangdong sports facilities manufacturers association and chairman of Changhe group, said that in order to reduce costs, many construction parties added a lot of benzene and other toxic substances in the laying works.
Chen Chen believes that a prominent problem of polyurethane runway is "poor control". Because the raw materials need to be mixed on site and then laid, human factors have a greater impact on the glue mix proportion, temperature, humidity and other construction requirements. Even if the two-component glue and black particles sold by the raw material supplier are qualified, the engineering supplier may still cause problems during construction, or add other waste materials and harmful substances to reduce the cost.
According to the report on risk monitoring and analysis of volatile hazardous substances in polyurethane plastic field, it is found that benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, TDI and other hazardous chemicals in the plastic field are mainly from raw materials such as adhesives, solvents, black particles, etc., while the construction party added organic solvents containing toluene and xylene in violation of regulations in order to save costs, In addition, unscientific formula and construction technology may also lead to the over standard of harmful substances.
Chongqing, a grass-roots school football coach told reporters that some of the school's plastic track weather a hot smell is very pungent, even adults can't stand, let alone children.
Why do things happen when it's hot? According to the information provided by Changhe group, firstly, some substances will decompose and release toxic gases under strong light and high temperature, such as short chain chlorinated paraffin to decompose hydrogen chloride. Secondly, according to Chen Chen, when the temperature is high, TDI, toluene, xylene and other volatile toxic substances volatilize faster.
Four questions: why can't the "poison runway" be checked and found out? ]
Does the plastic playground and runway meet the relevant standards? According to the interview, the formulation and revision of relevant standards are relatively lagging behind, which can not fully guarantee the quality of plastic playground and runway on campus.
Industry insiders said that just because there is no strict mandatory standard for safety and environmental protection, some engineering companies with good relationship with the bid inviter will suggest the other side to include the standards they have met in their hands into the bidding conditions, so as to achieve the purpose of winning the bid.
Strictly speaking, inspection and supervision shall be carried out before, during and after the construction of polyurethane runway laying. However, after the successive "enemy occupied" of the bidding and construction links, the final acceptance links are mostly in form. A construction contractor who didn't want to be named disclosed that in the construction process, as long as the pavement is smooth, the visual field effect is good, party a generally doesn't say anything about the quality, and the acceptance will basically pass without sending for inspection. Even if it is to be submitted for inspection, the samples to be submitted for inspection will be different from those actually used. Moreover, there are few professional testing institutions, which are generally located in provincial cities and take a lot of time and effort to submit for inspection.
Another deputy director in charge of infrastructure construction of a local education bureau, who did not want to be named, confessed to reporters that before 2015, the project acceptance of plastic runway had never included the detection of formaldehyde, benzene, xylene and other toxic substances, and the acceptance content was only the runway thickness and other content. In 2015, Jiangsu and other places successively exposed the "toxic runway" event, and increased the random inspection of volatile components of plastic runway. According to the deputy director, the sampling rate in this area is 50%.
According to the insiders, the two national standards commonly used or applicable to the construction of campus playground are GB / t22517.6-2011 requirements and inspection methods for sports venues Part 6: track and field venues and GB / t14833-2011 synthetic material track surface course, which stipulate benzene, toluene, xylene and free toluene diisocyanate Limit of harmful substances such as esters (TDI), heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury).
Chen Chen, vice president and chemical doctor of Guangzhou Tongxin Sports Industry Group Co., Ltd., said that the national standards widely mentioned at present are not mandatory standards, recommended by T representative; and the 2011 version of the national standard is actually formed on the basis of the 1993 national standard by modification, "very few of them are not updated in such a long time span, and they are generally updated once in several years".
Zhao Wenhai, vice president of Guangdong sports facilities manufacturers association and chairman of Changhe group, thinks that the current national standard is "not enough", for example, there is no provision for chloride, TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) and other harmful substances, which need to keep pace with the times.
Chen Chen said that after the outbreak of the "toxic runway" incident last year, the "quality control standard for the ground floor of the synthetic material playground" prepared by Shenzhen Construction Science Research Institute entrusted by Shenzhen Municipal Education Bureau was also drafted by Guangzhou Tongxin and other members of Guangdong sports facility Manufacturers Association. This is the first construction standard of plastic runway project in China. It was publicized to the public in March this year and asked for opinions. It is currently in the trial stage. This standard is mainly based on GB / T14833 - 2011, which expands the detection scope of hazardous substances, introduces the limit standards for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, short chain chlorinated paraffins and TVOC, and tests and supervises the mobilization materials, construction process and finished runway products.
According to the introduction, Shenzhen standard also specifies which unqualified item should be handled, for example, heavy metal exceeding the standard must be eliminated, and TVOC exceeding the standard can be placed for one month for re detection.
For the monitoring of the test, Zhao Wenhai reluctantly said: "the current sampling test is widely accepted Tucao, because the sample test report is likely to be faked, the samples sent are not necessarily the actual use of things. It should be raw material testing and on-site testing after completion. "
The unclear regulatory responsibilities among departments are also the main reason why the acceptance process of "poison playground" is in vain. One manufacturer said: "the supervision of the plastic runway does not matter a little. The Education Department said that I don't understand it. It belongs to the sports department. The sports department said that the school affairs are related to me. The quality supervision department said that you belong to the infrastructure construction. You are bidding for infrastructure construction, not purchasing goods, not under my control. The housing and Construction Department said that you are not a house, which has nothing to do with us."
Chen Chen said that in recent years, the situation has worsened even more than before due to problems such as poor supervision, vague centralized management, one-sided pursuit of low prices and lack of counterpart mandatory standards. "There is a real need for vigilance and strict supervision."
What's more, few people have been held accountable after the "poison playground" incident occurred in many places. "Last year's" poison track "business was all about materials. The bidding itself did not pursue responsibility, and the illegal cost was too low," said an industry insider
Five: why can't we close the loopholes when there was an early warning more than ten years ago? ]
Xinhua News Agency reporters found that as early as the end of 2003, experts had proposed the harm of TDI Polyurethane runway. Although some attention was paid at that time, due to various complex reasons, this problem has not been well solved in practice. From the current media exposure and the situation revealed by manufacturers, the problem is even worse.
In October 2003, at the second China School Sports Science Conference, some experts called for "the termination of the laying of plastic racetrack in school sports venues as soon as possible". According to some media, the indoor environment monitoring center of China Interior Decoration Association confirmed that TDI gas will be released from the materials produced by TDI under hot or strong light conditions, which is very harmful to human body. The incident triggered widespread media coverage.
However, the survey results provided by the school of materials and engineering of East China University of science and technology and the testing laboratory of synthetic surface course of track and field field field of China Track and Field Association showed that the TDI plastic track was non-toxic.
At that time, the Xinhua News Agency reported that no matter toxic or non-toxic, the focus was: "there is no chemical toxicity testing standard and special testing agency for campus plastic runway in our country at present. In the process of construction, it is unrealistic to rely on school testing alone to meet the requirements of environmental protection."
After the debate, in December 2003, at the seminar on the construction of school sports venues held by the Ministry of education and the State Sports Administration, the head of relevant departments of the Ministry of Education said that the construction of school plastic sports venues could not be stopped, but must be carried out in strict accordance with the requirements of environmental protection.
In March 2004, Wang zhegang, a teacher of the physical education teaching center of China Youth Political College, published the article "harm and Countermeasures of laying TDI Polyurethane Plastic raceway" in the Journal of environmental protection, pointing out that besides TDI, TDI Polyurethane raceway also contains many catalysts, binary amine chain extenders, organic molecular plasticizers, solvents and rubber coordination agents , benzene solvent and other toxic and harmful chemicals. At the same time, due to the difficulty of natural degradation, it may become a new environmental pollution. He called for the use of TDI plastic runways on campus to be stopped as soon as possible.
Chen Chen, vice president and doctor of chemistry of Guangzhou Tongxin Sports Industry Group Co., Ltd., said that Wang zheguang's paper did attract attention and discussion in the industry at that time, but his opinion was not adopted because there was no such case of concentrated outbreak at that time, and the focus was still on TDI. Moreover, TDI is really a very good polyurethane material, and if the technology is qualified and strictly supervised, the high-quality TDI Polyurethane should be safe after full reaction.
So even as the vice president of a prefabricated runway company, he didn't agree with the ban on polyurethane plastic runway, which resulted in too wide impact surface. But he said: "I didn't expect the situation to get worse."
Liu Haipeng, Secretary General of the facilities and equipment sub Technical Committee of the national sports Standardization Technical Committee, said last year that if the formula is scientific, the chemical sheets in the excellent environmental protection plastic runway will fully react, and the residues of harmful substances will be very few or even no, even in the high temperature environment. But unscientific formula, incomplete reaction, there will be residues.
According to the information found by the reporter, after Wang zheguang, some experts put forward more compromise and practical suggestions, advocating that laying materials and construction enterprises should be carefully selected in the construction of school sports venues, instead of laying TDI system polyurethane runway materials indoors. At the same time, the MDI synthetic surface material with less harm to human body was developed and used, and the TDI system was phased out in the past three years. Vigorously develop the environmental friendly synthetic material surface layer with advanced performance, high-tech content, safety, renewable and suitable for various conditions. Schools with conditions can use prefabricated coiled materials in one step.
However, things that were said ten years ago are still moving slowly, and things are getting worse because of poor supervision.
After the outbreak of the problem in 2015, after the "rectification" of the local authorities, in 2016, the "toxic runway" occurred in other places.
A manufacturer told reporters that after the exposure of many polyurethane problem runways in various regions last year, wechat group in their industry discussed that "one hot day next year, something may happen again". The result is unfortunate.
The hot summer is not over, and the storm, discussion and accountability about the "poison track" are not over, and should not be over.
[sports review: in the face of "toxic track", our mood is unstable]
In the investigation of "poison track", Xinhua News Agency reporters heard the familiar, sad and angry routine language: at present, parents are in a stable mood.
It's a big story. How can parents be emotionally stable in the face of health problems that are often the only one of their own children, and when suspected "drug runway" incidents emerge in an endless stream across the country? At least in the Xinhua News Agency's survey, no parent said they were indifferent.
Routine language is often the expression of lazy government, which often represents the lack of management ability and a kind of inaction.
This is not uncommon in this investigation by Xinhua News Agency reporters.
Some insiders describe it as follows: for quality control, the Education Department says that I don't understand it, and it belongs to the sports department; the sports department says that the school matters have something to do with me; the quality supervision department says that you belong to infrastructure construction, and you are bidding for infrastructure construction, not purchasing goods, and don't belong to me; the housing and Construction Department says that you are not a house, and have nothing to do with us
In addition to Jiulong's water control and local protectionism, there is also a sense of peace and security.
If you don't have an accident, don't take the initiative to check it. Last year's accident areas such as Shenzhen took action and issued new standards, but why did they fail to alert other regions to self-examination after the accident last year?
If something goes wrong, as long as the standards on the surface are met, it doesn't matter how fierce the reaction of the masses is, whether or not those standards are behind.
It's true that according to the current standards, some data tests are qualified, but children's bright red nose blood and abnormal data of body tests will not deceive people.
No matter which department issued the standard, children's health is the first standard. Those who do not meet this standard must be rectified as soon as possible.
Whether it is the mass line, or the traditional Chinese "young people and human beings", or even the instinct of animals, will not be indifferent to the health of their offspring.
The easiest way to deal with the runway incident is to shovel the runway first. But this is only an emergency means. If we don't solve it from the source and management mechanism, without the "poison track", we will encounter "poison classroom" and "poison desk" next time
The last semester of 2016 will soon be over, but the new semester will start soon. At that time, the temperature may not be reduced and it will be drier. If facing more children's nosebleed, can the relevant departments continue to maintain emotional stability?
Characters: Li Li, Zhou Kai, Gong Bing, Shu Wen, Wang Yong; Editor: Lu Yuchen
Source of pictures and texts: Xinhua News Agency